Firefighting Foam Market - Industry Analysis, Market Size, Share, Trends, Application Analysis, Growth and Forecast 2020 - 2025

Report Code: CMR 32115 Report Format: PDF + Excel (Delivery in 48 Hrs)
Firefighting Foam Market size is forecast to reach $993.42 million by 2020, after growing at a CAGR of 7% during 2020-2025. Firefighting foam is foam that is usually designed to control fire. They have the ability to cool the fire and cover the gas so they can prevent its direct contact with oxygen completely. Furthermore, with technological advancements in the fluorine free foams, and rising fire related incidents in oil & gas industry are the factors responsible for the growth of this market.

Report Coverage
The report: “Firefighting Foam Market - Forecast (2020-2025)”, by IndustryARC, covers an in-depth analysis of the following segments of the Firefighting Foam Industry.

By Product Type: Aqueous Film Forming Foam, Alcohol resistant Film Forming Foam, Protein Foam, Synthetic Detergent Foam, Others
By End Use Industry: Oil & Gas, Buiding and Construction (Residential (Independent Homes, Row Homes, Large Apartment Buildings) Commercial (Hospital, School, Airport, Others)), Aviation, Marine, Mining, Chemical, Others
By Geography: North America, South America, Europe, APAC, RoW


Key Takeaways
  • Asia-Pacific dominates the Firefighting Foam market owing to increasing demand from the oil & gas industries present in the region.
  • The Growing demand for the environment-friendly safe firefighting foam among the users is likely to aid in the market growth.
  • Increasing expenditure on fire-related incidents at industrial sites drives the growth of the firefighting foam market
  • The absence of international regulatory body that can approve firefighting foam are anticipated to be the major restrain in the growth of the global market.

By Product Type- Segment Analysis
The aqueous film forming foam segment held the largest share in the Firefighting foam market in 2019. The demand of Aqueous Film Forming Foam is driven by its use in the oil & gas industry. The fact that the oil & gas industry is more fire-prone and Aqueous Film Forming Foam prevents these fires effectively. Secondly, Aqueous Film Forming Foam has longer shelf life. The Aqueous Film Forming Foams are also compatible with all currently available dry chemical powder agents. The Alcohol resistant Film forming Foam market is the second most growing market. It is used in high risk facilities such as refineries, pharmaceutical plants, process areas and so on. The oil & gas is one of the most present and essential resources in everyday life. The oil & gas industry is one of the most powerful branches in the world economy. More than four billion metric tons of oil is produced worldwide annually. Oil demand has been rising steadily over the last decades. This factor will drive the growth of the market in the forecast period.

By End use Industry - Segment Analysis
The oil & gas industry has the primary market for Firefighting Foam growing at a CAGR of 9.3%. It is the best fire protection solution for fires caused due to flammable liquids. In oil & gas industry, the risk of oil-based fires is high and hence the demand for Firefighting foam is increasing. According to the US Fire administration, there are 19000 fire fatal incidents and 7000 fire resulting injuries occurred in the year 2017, which resulted in heavy casualty and loss of the public property. The same data release by Fire & rescue department of UK, there are 182,825 fire incidents occurred in the year 2018-19 in England and Wales. According to Directorate General of NDRF & Civil Defense (Fire), there is an increase of 20% in the Fire Incidents in India. The increasing of Fire Incidents in Factories, Industries, Refineries, and plants has created an opportunity for the Firefighting Foam market globally.

Geography - Segment Analysis
Asia-Pacific (APAC) dominated the Firefighting foam market with a share of 38% followed by North America and Europe. The economy of APAC is mainly influenced by the economic dynamics of countries such as China and India, but with growing foreign direct investment for economic development of South East Asia, the current scenario is changing. Countries in South East Asia are witnessing high growth in oil & gas industry and mining industry which ultimately beneficial for the Firefighting Foam Market. China was the leading regional market, due to the presence of Aviation sector and Oil refineries. India is the second major market after china. The coronavirus pandemic has had far-reaching consequences beyond the spread of the disease and efforts to quarantine it. As the pandemic has spread around the globe, concerns have shifted from supply-side manufacturing issues to decreased business therefore, it hinders the growth of fighting foam market. One of the linchpins of global economy is the oil and gas industry, more specifically oil. The appearance of Corona virus in December 2019 in China and gradual expansion of the epidemic drastically brought down demand and price of the crude oil. Global level travel bans along with grounding of international flights leads to heavy reduction in consumption of aviation turbine fuel (ATF) across the globe. COVID-19’s spread across 175 countries means the virus is bound to affect international travel for a longer period of time. It is expected that global oil demand may shrink by 15-20 million barrels for day due to Corona effect including extensive lockdown. This factor will hamper the growth of market for the year 2020.

Drivers – Firefighting Foam Market

  • Increased in fire-related expenditure by Industries will drive the market
This increase in fire-related spending by a number of Industries and small-medium companies across the globe is driving the market of Firefighting Foam. The companies from the oil, gas, and mining sector are increasing their spending on fire suppression. They are employing firefighting foams to prevent and contain the critical fire accidents, happening in onshore and offshore oil, gas, and mining facilities because of the hydrocarbons that are released from pipelines and process plants. The rise in infrastructural investment, coupled with the increase in demand for protective equipment is anticipated the growth of the market in the forecast period.

  • Increasing shift towards the Eco-Friendly Firefighting Foam will drive the market
Various types of firefighting foams contain fluorochemical which has proved to be harmful to the environment and to the human race.  Among the commonly used foams, fluorochemical is present in FP, FFFP, AFFF and AR-AFFF.  Manufacturers usually use fluorochemical in foam due to various advantages such as it provides increasing extinguishment speed, provides a thin film to suppress vapors and to add oleo phobic properties to the foam. But recently, various regulatory authorities such as USEPA have banned the use of fluorosurfactants that are C8 in the fluorocarbon chain length. These types of fluorosurfactants are PBT i.e. Persistence, bioaccumilative and toxic in the environment. Hence, the shift to C6 from C8 by various manufacturers has resulted in a new range of firefighting foams which are considered environmentally safe and subsequently drives the growth of the market in the forecast period.

Challenges – Firefighting Foam Market

  • Absence of international regulatory body will hamper the growth of the market
Tight government regulations for the production of Firefighting foam, and the absence of international regulatory body that can approve the Firefighting foam are anticipated to be the major restrain in the growth of its global market. Presently, Most of the manufacturers are producing Firefighting foam following specific regulations of a particular country to pass the test for their product in that respective country. Until 2001, when the European Standard EN-1568 unified the criteria for approving and evaluating the foam concentrates, each country used its own standards, making it difficult to compare the quality of foam concentrates manufactured in different countries. Since 2001, the reference standard in Europe for testing and qualification of foam is the standard EN-1568, consisting of four parts, namely, EN-1568-1, EN-1568-2, EN-1568-3, and EN-1568-4. Apart from this, the other standards followed globally include UL162, ECHA, ICAO Levels A, B & C, IMO, CAP 437, LASTFIRE, MIL-F-24385, NFPA 11 and others. In certain Australian countries, the Government has introduced a ban on the use of fluorinated firefighting foams due to concerns about the harmful impact of the chemicals on the environment. The ban covers all types of fluorinated firefighting foams, both C8 types and C6 types. Hence, as various countries follow different regulatory standards; this acts as a restraint for the growth of the firefighting foams on the global level as major manufacturers are unable to expand their reach to different countries if their products do not pass the test of the country. Different manufacturers would not prefer to expand to newer countries due to differing tests their product will have to pass. Hence, this factor is expected to restrain the growth of firefighting foam market, globally.

Market Landscape
Technology launches, acquisitions and R&D activities are key strategies adopted by players in the Fire-fighting foam market. In 2019, the market of Firefighting foam market has been consolidated by the top five players accounting for xx% of the share. Major players in the Fire-fighting market are Kerr Fire, Angus Fire, EAU&FEU, DIC Corporation, SFFECO Global and others.

Acquisitions/Technology Launches
  • In January 2015 Dafo Fomtec AB developed formulations from C8 to C6, and only produce firefighting foam that are completely C6. This helped the company adhere to the environmental policy.
  • In May 2017, Dafo Fomtec AB partnered with Delta Fire (UK) as an authorized distributor for its products in UK. Through this partnership, the company could expand its reach to UK customers.

1. Firefighting Foam Market - Overview
        1.1 Definitions and Scope
2. Firefighting Foam Market - Executive summary
        2.1 Market Revenue, Market Size and Key Trends by Company
        2.2 Key Trends by type of Application
        2.3 Key Trends segmented by Geography
3. Firefighting Foam Market
        3.1 Comparative analysis
            3.1.1 Product Benchmarking - Top 10 companies
            3.1.2 Top 5 Financials Analysis
            3.1.3 Market Value split by Top 10 companies
            3.1.4 Patent Analysis - Top 10 companies
            3.1.5 Pricing Analysis
4. Firefighting Foam Market - Startup companies Scenario Premium
        4.1 Top 10 startup company Analysis by
            4.1.1 Investment
            4.1.2 Revenue
            4.1.3 Market Shares
            4.1.4 Market Size and Application Analysis
            4.1.5 Venture Capital and Funding Scenario
5. Firefighting Foam Market - Industry Market Entry Scenario Premium
        5.1 Regulatory Framework Overview
        5.2 New Business and Ease of Doing business index
        5.3 Case studies of successful ventures
        5.4 Customer Analysis - Top 10 companies
6. Firefighting Foam Market Forces
        6.1 Drivers
        6.2 Constraints
        6.3 Challenges
        6.4 Porters five force model
            6.4.1 Bargaining power of suppliers
            6.4.2 Bargaining powers of customers
            6.4.3 Threat of new entrants
            6.4.4 Rivalry among existing players
            6.4.5 Threat of substitutes
7. Firefighting Foam Market -Strategic analysis
        7.1 Value chain analysis
        7.2 Opportunities analysis
        7.3 Product life cycle
        7.4 Suppliers and distributors Market Share
8. Firefighting Foam Market - By Product Type (Market Size -$Million / $Billion)
        8.1 Market Size and Market Share Analysis
        8.2 Application Revenue and Trend Research
        8.3 Product Segment Analysis
            8.3.1 Aqueous Film Forming Foam
            8.3.2 Alcohol Resistant Aqueous Film Forming Foam
            8.3.3 Protein Foam
            8.3.4 Synthetic Detergent Foam
            8.3.5 Others
 9. Firefighting Foam Market - By End-Use Industry (Market Size -$Million / $Billion)
            9.1 Oil & Gas
            9.2 Aviation
            9.3 Marine
            9.4 Mining
            9.5 Others
10. Firefighting Foam - By Application Type (Market Size -$Million / $Billion)
        10.1 Segment type Size and Market Share Analysis
        10.2 Application Revenue and Trends by type of Application
        10.3 Application Segment Analysis by Type
11. Firefighting Foam- By Geography (Market Size -$Million / $Billion)
        11.1 Firefighting Foam Market - North America Segment Research
        11.2 North America Market Research (Million / $Billion)
            11.2.1 Segment type Size and Market Size Analysis
            11.2.2 Revenue and Trends
            11.2.3 Application Revenue and Trends by type of Application
            11.2.4 Company Revenue and Product Analysis
            11.2.5 North America Product type and Application Market Size
                  11.2.5.1 U.S
                  11.2.5.2 Canada
                  11.2.5.3 Mexico
                  11.2.5.4 Rest of North America
        11.3 Firefighting Foam- South America Segment Research
        11.4 South America Market Research (Market Size -$Million / $Billion)
            11.4.1 Segment type Size and Market Size Analysis
            11.4.2 Revenue and Trends
            11.4.3 Application Revenue and Trends by type of Application
            11.4.4 Company Revenue and Product Analysis
            11.4.5 South America Product type and Application Market Size
                  11.4.5.1 Brazil
                  11.4.5.2 Venezuela
                  11.4.5.3 Argentina
                  11.4.5.4 Ecuador
                  11.4.5.5 Peru
                  11.4.5.6 Colombia
                  11.4.5.7 Costa Rica
                  11.4.5.8 Rest of South America
        11.5 Firefighting Foam- Europe Segment Research
        11.6 Europe Market Research (Market Size -$Million / $Billion)
            11.6.1 Segment type Size and Market Size Analysis
            11.6.2 Revenue and Trends
            11.6.3 Application Revenue and Trends by type of Application
            11.6.4 Company Revenue and Product Analysis
            11.6.5 Europe Segment Product type and Application Market Size
                  11.6.5.1 U.K
                  11.6.5.2 Germany
                  11.6.5.3 Italy
                  11.6.5.4 France
                  11.6.5.5 Netherlands
                  11.6.5.6 Belgium
                  11.6.5.7 Denmark
                  11.6.5.8 Spain
                  11.6.5.9 Rest of Europe
        11.7 Firefighting Foam - APAC Segment Research
        11.8 APAC Market Research (Market Size -$Million / $Billion)
            11.8.1 Segment type Size and Market Size Analysis
            11.8.2 Revenue and Trends
            11.8.3 Application Revenue and Trends by type of Application
            11.8.4 Company Revenue and Product Analysis
            11.8.5 APAC Segment - Product type and Application Market Size
                  11.8.5.1 China
                  11.8.5.2 Australia
                  11.8.5.3 Japan
                  11.8.5.4 South Korea
                  11.8.5.5 India
                  11.8.5.6 Taiwan
                  11.8.5.7 Malaysia
                  11.8.5.8 Hong kong
                  11.8.5.9 Rest of APAC
        11.9 Firefighting Foam - Middle East Segment and Africa Segment Research
        11.10 Middle East & Africa Market Research (Market Size -$Million / $Billion)
            11.10.1 Segment type Size and Market Size Analysis
            11.10.2 Revenue and Trend Analysis
            11.10.3 Application Revenue and Trends by type of Application
            11.10.4 Company Revenue and Product Analysis
            11.10.5 Middle East Segment Product type and Application Market Size
                  11.10.5.1 Israel
                  11.10.5.2 Saudi Arabia
                  11.10.5.3 UAE
            11.10.6 Africa Segment Analysis
                  11.10.6.1 South Africa
                  11.10.6.2 Rest of Middle East & Africa
12. Firefighting Foam Market - Entropy
        12.1 New product launches
        12.2 M&A s, collaborations, JVs and partnerships
13. Firefighting Foam Market - Industry / Segment Competition landscape Premium
        13.1 Market Share Analysis
            13.1.1 Market Share by Country- Top companies
            13.1.2 Market Share by Region- Top 10 companies
            13.1.3 Market Share by type of Application - Top 10 companies
            13.1.4 Market Share by type of Product / Product category- Top 10 companies
            13.1.5 Market Share at global level - Top 10 companies
            13.1.6 Best Practises for companies
14. Firefighting Foam Market - Key Company List by Country Premium
15. Firefighting Foam Market Company Analysis
15.1. Market Share, Company Revenue, Products, M&A, Developments
15.2. Additional Company Profiles
15.3. 3F
15.4. Auxquimia
15.5. Buckeye Fire Equipment Company
15.6. Fireade Inc.
15.7. Firechem
15.8. IFP
15.9. KV Fire Chemicals Pvt. Ltd.
15.10. Orchidee
15.11. Profoam
15.12. Vintex Fire Protection Pvt Ltd
15.13. Angus Fire
15.14. DIC Corporation
15.15. Dafo Fomtec AB
15.16. Dr. Sthamer
15.17. EAU
15.18. Johnson Controls International PLC.
15.19. Kerr Fire
15.20. National Foam
15.21. The Solberg Company
15.22. Company 21
15.23. Company 22 & More
*Financials would be provided on a best efforts basis for private companies
16. Firefighting Foam Market - Appendix
        16.1 Abbreviations
        16.2 Sources
17. Firefighting Foam Market - Methodology
        17.1 Research Methodology
            17.1.1 Company Expert Interviews
            17.1.2 Industry Databases
            17.1.3 Associations
            17.1.4 Company News
            17.1.5 Company Annual Reports
            17.1.6 Application Trends
            17.1.7 New Products and Product database
            17.1.8 Company Transcripts
            17.1.9 R&D Trends
            17.1.10 Key Opinion Leaders Interviews
            17.1.11 Supply and Demand Trends

LIST OF TABLES

1.Global Firefighting Foam Market By Type Market 2019-2024 ($M)
1.1 Aqueous Film Forming Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Global Industry Research
1.2 Alcohol Resistant Aqueous Film Forming Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Global Industry Research
1.3 Protein Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Global Industry Research
1.4 Synthetic Detergent Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Global Industry Research
2.Global Firefighting Foam Market By End-Use Industry Market 2019-2024 ($M)
2.1 Oil & Gas Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Global Industry Research
2.2 Aviation Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Global Industry Research
2.3 Marine Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Global Industry Research
2.4 Mining Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Global Industry Research
3.Global Firefighting Foam Market By Type Market 2019-2024 (Volume/Units)
3.1 Aqueous Film Forming Foam Market 2019-2024 (Volume/Units) - Global Industry Research
3.2 Alcohol Resistant Aqueous Film Forming Foam Market 2019-2024 (Volume/Units) - Global Industry Research
3.3 Protein Foam Market 2019-2024 (Volume/Units) - Global Industry Research
3.4 Synthetic Detergent Foam Market 2019-2024 (Volume/Units) - Global Industry Research
4.Global Firefighting Foam Market By End-Use Industry Market 2019-2024 (Volume/Units)
4.1 Oil & Gas Market 2019-2024 (Volume/Units) - Global Industry Research
4.2 Aviation Market 2019-2024 (Volume/Units) - Global Industry Research
4.3 Marine Market 2019-2024 (Volume/Units) - Global Industry Research
4.4 Mining Market 2019-2024 (Volume/Units) - Global Industry Research
5.North America Firefighting Foam Market By Type Market 2019-2024 ($M)
5.1 Aqueous Film Forming Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
5.2 Alcohol Resistant Aqueous Film Forming Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
5.3 Protein Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
5.4 Synthetic Detergent Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
6.North America Firefighting Foam Market By End-Use Industry Market 2019-2024 ($M)
6.1 Oil & Gas Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
6.2 Aviation Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
6.3 Marine Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
6.4 Mining Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
7.South America Firefighting Foam Market By Type Market 2019-2024 ($M)
7.1 Aqueous Film Forming Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
7.2 Alcohol Resistant Aqueous Film Forming Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
7.3 Protein Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
7.4 Synthetic Detergent Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
8.South America Firefighting Foam Market By End-Use Industry Market 2019-2024 ($M)
8.1 Oil & Gas Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
8.2 Aviation Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
8.3 Marine Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
8.4 Mining Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
9.Europe Firefighting Foam Market By Type Market 2019-2024 ($M)
9.1 Aqueous Film Forming Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
9.2 Alcohol Resistant Aqueous Film Forming Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
9.3 Protein Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
9.4 Synthetic Detergent Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
10.Europe Firefighting Foam Market By End-Use Industry Market 2019-2024 ($M)
10.1 Oil & Gas Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
10.2 Aviation Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
10.3 Marine Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
10.4 Mining Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
11.APAC Firefighting Foam Market By Type Market 2019-2024 ($M)
11.1 Aqueous Film Forming Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
11.2 Alcohol Resistant Aqueous Film Forming Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
11.3 Protein Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
11.4 Synthetic Detergent Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
12.APAC Firefighting Foam Market By End-Use Industry Market 2019-2024 ($M)
12.1 Oil & Gas Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
12.2 Aviation Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
12.3 Marine Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
12.4 Mining Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
13.MENA Firefighting Foam Market By Type Market 2019-2024 ($M)
13.1 Aqueous Film Forming Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
13.2 Alcohol Resistant Aqueous Film Forming Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
13.3 Protein Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
13.4 Synthetic Detergent Foam Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
14.MENA Firefighting Foam Market By End-Use Industry Market 2019-2024 ($M)
14.1 Oil & Gas Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
14.2 Aviation Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
14.3 Marine Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research
14.4 Mining Market 2019-2024 ($M) - Regional Industry Research

LIST OF FIGURES

1.US Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
2.Canada Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
3.Mexico Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
4.Brazil Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
5.Argentina Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
6.Peru Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
7.Colombia Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
8.Chile Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
9.Rest of South America Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
10.UK Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
11.Germany Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
12.France Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
13.Italy Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
14.Spain Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
15.Rest of Europe Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
16.China Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
17.India Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
18.Japan Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
19.South Korea Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
20.South Africa Firefighting Foam Market Revenue, 2019-2024 ($M)
21.North America Firefighting Foam By Application
22.South America Firefighting Foam By Application
23.Europe Firefighting Foam By Application
24.APAC Firefighting Foam By Application
25.MENA Firefighting Foam By Application
26.Johnson Controls International PLC., Sales /Revenue, 2015-2018 ($Mn/$Bn)
27.The Solberg Company, Sales /Revenue, 2015-2018 ($Mn/$Bn)
28.Dr. Sthamer, Sales /Revenue, 2015-2018 ($Mn/$Bn)
29.National Foam, Sales /Revenue, 2015-2018 ($Mn/$Bn)
30.Angus Fire, Sales /Revenue, 2015-2018 ($Mn/$Bn)
31.Kerr Fire, Sales /Revenue, 2015-2018 ($Mn/$Bn)
32.EAU, Sales /Revenue, 2015-2018 ($Mn/$Bn)
33.DIC Corporation, Sales /Revenue, 2015-2018 ($Mn/$Bn)
34.Dafo Fomtec AB, Sales /Revenue, 2015-2018 ($Mn/$Bn)
35.Additional Company Profiles, Sales /Revenue, 2015-2018 ($Mn/$Bn)