The next big thing in the automotive sector is the introduction of Driver Assistance solutions. According to a report published by the economic times in January 21, the ADAS market is expected to reach $65.2 billion by 2025. It further states that 90% of all vehicles sold will be having some form of ADAS solution in the next five years. Automakers are forced to reinvent themselves as vehicle digitization and software continues to gain importance. The competition especially in the passenger car segment is muscled by the digital innovation and latest features in the vehicles. It has almost become mandatory for cars to be safe and connected, and this has gained added importance with the emergence of the autonomous vehicles. Automakers who fail to ride on the digital innovation will lose out to its competitors. Automotive OEMs will have to make tough calls as to how they are looking to implement software development and develop their own vehicle operating systems. This is essential for ADAS features to be implemented. Over the next year or so automakers are likely to have their own IOS and Android for Mobility. Connected cars with significant ADAS solutions integrated paving the road to future mobility, be it passenger cars, commercial vehicles (HCVs, LCVs, construction equipment vehicles, defense vehicles) and shared rides. The emergence of autonomous and connected cars has brought the automotive industry to a cross roads where car producers are not only manufacturing vehicles but are also becoming cutting-edge technology innovators. As the automotive industry shifts focus from horsepower to computing power, the sector has been innovating in the real sense and embracing the enhanced ADAS features in emerging technologies at a rapid pace.
What are ADAS?
Advance Driver Assistance System (ADAS) is a vehicle control framework that uses sensors (e.g. ultrasonic, infrared, radar, image, and laser) to enhance driving comfort and occupants’ safety by helping the driver in perceiving and responding to dangerous traffic situations. ADAS systems can be considered as an array of systems and subsystems providing the best approach to fully automated driving. Driver assistance systems are intended to bring down the frequency of the fatalities by disposing of numerous driver mistakes. Taking into account the tremendous cost to the general public because of accidents, the investments on ADAS will most likely be productive. However, the high entry cost of every ADAS product implies that the penetration level will take 10 years or more until they move from luxury vehicles to passenger cars.
In the twentieth century different sorts of vehicles have been acquainted with safety and comfort to meet the human needs and because of the innovative technologies it makes the vehicle to perform the assigned operations efficiently. The safety and comfort application are related to vehicle electronics operational unit. The introduction of connected cars and embedded technology systems has given rise to ADAS installations that enhances safety and comfort in vehicles. The use of embedded systems inside the vehicle supports in controlling the pollution level and enhances diagnostics and monitoring abilities along with advancing the safety and comfort features. The automobile industry is vigorously investing in research and development to develop the electronic content in the vehicles by adding numerous types of sensors and microcontrollers.
The recent trends in the automobile industry is centered on using lightweight raw materials, scaling down the mechanical components and advancing intelligence & electrification resulting in quick development of the automotive electronics business. The government regulations in Europe and the United States have given green signal to enhance safety features of vehicles which is one of the market drivers for the automotive electronics industry. The advancements in consumer electronics products has surged demand for infotainment services( communication and entertainment) in vehicles, therefore the communication and safety control systems are set to experience rapid growth. In perspective of the current circumstance, leading OEMs will likewise consider auto electronics as the key component of product differentiation.
The automobile industry has encountered ups and downs in the recent years, showing a constant growth. The automobile manufacturers have shifted its focus from traditional manufacturing regions to the developing markets such as India, China and so on. The demand of consumers has solidified the business position of the economic models with advanced safety components and comfort systems.
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Avenue of new features
Advance Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is currently among the burning topics in the automobile market. Automobile manufacturers are attempting to differentiate their vehicles to consumers by enabling more driver assistance system features for the sake of enhanced road safety. ADAS significantly build security, enhance vehicle technology and operating efficiency, lessen fuel consumption, and improve driving solace in the connected vehicle. Recently launched ADAS systems are intended to avert fatalities by taking fractional control of the vehicle movement. These automated safety frameworks are creating platform for tomorrow's driverless cars.
ADAS requires a wide variety of sensors for monitoring the vehicle's prompt surroundings and drivers themselves. ADAS applications use numerous types of sensors to provide ameliorated safety attributes such as automated parking assistance, lane departure warning systems, cruise control and collision avoidance systems. ADAS utilization is one key illustration of the sudden rise in functional capabilities of embedded systems and electronics hardware in vehicles. The quick rise of different sensors and safety systems in vehicles demands establishment of revamped system foundation in ADAS architectures as well as all through the vehicle design.
Sensor Applications in ADAS
Automobile manufacturers have chosen to go towards a course of building trust to ADAS applications by presenting ADAS functionality in a regulated methodology. They are right now cantered at assistance functions like highway assistance or cruise control systems to get to full independent driving as final objective. Some of the most common features in connected cars are as follows:
Safety and comfort in automobiles have been the major areas of focus for the vehicle manufacturers in the past few years. Safety in vehicles has now been categorized into Active Safety and Passive Safety. Passive safety applications such as seat belts and air bags are the default features in all the classes of vehicles; while the active safety systems are the augmented version of safety in automobiles which are mainly regarded as the semi-automatic applications. The integration of the vehicle dynamics with the automotive electronics components such as sensors, microcontrollers and software have resulted in quantum leap in the technology that focuses more on comfortable and safer driving experience.
Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) has been one of the remarkable breakthroughs in designing applications for advanced safety in automobiles. ADAS is an array of systems and subsystems that incorporates electronic components such as sensors, microcontrollers and software under one roof. The sensors installed in the driver assistance systems are linked with the Electronic Stability Control (ESC) in cars that provide beep signals and direct drivers away from arduous situations that can possibly lead to fatal accidents.
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are designed to assist drivers in monitoring the vehicle surrounding while driving, whether it be the vehicle ahead or the pedestrians on the roads. ADAS are broadly classified into four categories based on the purpose they serve, namely: Collision Avoidance Systems, Assistance Systems, Perception Systems and Driver Status Systems. ADAS primarily focus on the collision avoidance systems with technologies such as Forward Collision Mitigation System (FCMS) and Forward Collision Warning System (FCMS). Assistance Systems application list includes Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). Blind Spot Detection System (BSD), Lane Change Assist and Departure Warning Systems. The Traffic Sign Recognition Systems (TSR) and Night Vision are considered as the perceptual decision of the ADAS systems. ADAS is also capable of monitoring the driver’s facial movements and the physiological changes in the driver’s body such as driving position, heartbeat and blinks frequency of the pupil; Driver Drowsiness Monitoring Systems is the application designed to monitor the physiological activities.
ADAS Penetration Across Sectors
ADAS are in the high-end luxury vehicles since the early 2000s. However in recent years, ADAS has been increasingly implemented in all standards of passenger and commercial vehicles and is expected to expand its reach further into the economic as well as standard segments of passenger vehicles. ADAS applications are rafted in luxury vehicles as a standard feature and as an aftermarket accessory based on customer demand. The aftermarket offerings of ADAS have increased in the recent years. The motive behind investments into R&D by the manufacturers is to shift the ADAS penetration from luxury vehicle to every segment of automobiles including commercial vehicles. Recent advancements in the ADAS technology have made these systems more user-friendly. Since automobile industry is one of the largest business sectors, the introduction of ADAS in vehicles has brought about a revolution in the industry attracting more number of suppliers for the product.
Today’s automobiles are equipped with sophisticated innovations and automobile manufacturers ceaselessly offer new innovations in the form of product augmentation and technological developments. The automobile manufacturers are synching wireless and smartphones technology with the automotive electronics that is certainly providing solutions to fulfil customer needs. Nonetheless, the automakers are consistently focusing on making new interfaces and Human-Machine Interface (HMI) frameworks. The innovations in technology have overhauled the automotive product cycles that has resulted in more adaptations of these advanced systems and competition on these technological grounds.
Key drivers for the development of the ADAS market are the customers’ interests and attitudes. There is a significant difference between the demand generated by the regulations imposed by the government bodies and the continually changing consumer preferences. The U.S. and European customers’ responses and viewpoints for safety measures in automobiles highlight the contrast between their attitudes, awareness and knowledge towards active safety. European purchasers appear to be more concerned about vehicle safety, have larger amount of awareness of driver assistance systems and are ready to pay for extra safety measures. On the other hand, the U.S. customers are more concerned regarding luxury and physical appearance, hence don't require extra safety measures in their vehicles and are less willing to pay for extra safety features. This distinction is the consequence of the different kind of vehicles these buyers drive and the difference of the roads in those regions. These discoveries demonstrate clear contrasts in impression of vehicle safety and desire of safety systems in Europe and the U.S.
The automobile industry is witnessing a huge impact of the in-vehicle electronics and with the advent of ADAS, the scope of safety and comfort has reached new levels across all automobile segments. Over the long haul, this will influence the ADAS business across various classes of vehicles and in both secured and developing markets, and explains how the innovation behind these sub-systems is permitted to propel after some time. The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has directed automakers to use back cameras in all vehicles manufactured in 2014 and has further expanded this to include further safety features through 2020. A comparable pattern is likewise seen in Europe. Euro NCAP is a vehicle safety certification body that is presently acknowledged by the European Commission, numerous administrations such as Transport Research Laboratory, U.K and buyer associations in Europe. Euro NCAP propelled a prize system, ‘Euro NCAP Advanced’ to advance improvement and selection of intelligent safety systems. Euro NCAP Advanced empowers or ‘prizes’ automobile creators by acknowledging the individuals who make accessible new safety improvements with manifested benefits. Blind Spot Detection, Lane Detection Systems, Cruise Control Systems, Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB), Automatic Emergency Call and In-Vehicle Navigation Systems are few of the ADAS systems that were made mandatory by the association.
Impact of COVID-19
The automotive industry has experienced a growing shift in consumer preference towards safe, connected and autonomous vehicles post spread of COVID-19 virus. This growth is driven mostly from Asia Pacific countries. Consumers are opting for car models with ADAS features over conventional variant of the same car. Further, a hike in the purchase of vehicles in the later stage of 2020 can be seen. This spike in sales is primarily due to the fact that a large number of consumers had to work from home and travel restrictions around the world has kept people from traveling, going out for leisure and other activities in the weekend. This has resulted in added disposable income which has enabled many consumers to purchase their private vehicles, or upgrade their existing vehicles. Thus, with the introduction of enhanced ADAS variants for most of the latest vehicles which were lunched post 2020 January, a buzz was created among the consumer for the purchase of connected and ADAS feature heavy vehicles. The pandemic has also resulted in consumers opting for their private vehicles over public transport. This has created added demand for private passenger vehicles as compared to pre pandemic times. The growing number of cars with Driver Assistance features will lead to improved data gathering which can enhance overall driving experience of all kinds of cars. This information and data can be used in tons of IoT application, like real time traffic update, parking availability road blocks and many others. According to Gartner there is around 225 million connected vehicles by the end of 2020. There will be tons of data collected from these connected vehicles and sent to the cloud which will help to further drive the autonomous vehicles and ADAS solution revolution in the market. At the start of 2021, HARMAN a global leader in home & car audio and automotive telematics has rightly highlighted how consumers are demanding a greater number of ADAS car features even in B-segments cars. Even in entry level passenger cars which are used for both commercial and private use there are more than 50 ADAS features like vehicle tracking, driving ratings and over the air diagnostics. OEMs are focusing at increasing ADAS features in their vehicles to improve the overall user experience. The company has further stated that the automotive industry will experience acceleration in the consumption of real time data. ADAS solutions have got the push in demand in the pandemic as consumers had to adapt to a wide range of digital services and features as a way to enhance driver safety and monitoring. The integration of infotainment in connected cars will provide integration of much digital application. Following tables show the impact of COVID-19 on the most popular ADAS features in cars.
Digitalization in automotive is driven by COVID-19 with people having to embrace digitization which is the need of the hour for social distancing, tracking, safety, and efficiency. Services and features enabling the above will see growing popularity among car-buyers. Digitalization will also be supported by other factors like increasing screens in cars and increasing 5G network coverage. Answer to all the above requirement is in ADAS solutions in vehicles.
Shift towards Personal Mobility
In the current market, the autonomous vehicle industry is based on Level 1 and Level 2. Due to the high cost of significant autonomy in the automotive industry, a major share of vehicles are available with limited levels of Autonomy such as Adaptive cruise control, Autopilot and other ADAS solutions. The high end vehicles have however started adopting Level 3 and Level 4 focused on traffic and pedestrian detection capability. Level 3 vehicles have “environmental detection” capabilities and can make informed decisions for them, such as accelerating past a slow-moving vehicle but they still require human override. The driver needs to take control if the autonomous system is unable to execute the task in unexpected cases. The limitation of regulations in other countries in APAC as well has limited the full Level 3 adoption to only European and Chinese markets where more favorable regulations exist.
Level 4 vehicles can operate in self-driving mode. But with current legislation and infrastructure, these vehicles have limited area functionality, typically set speed urban areas through geo-fencing technology. The development of Level 4 vehicles is largely in the prototype phase with the focus on research collaborations to enhance development. For instance Volvo and Baidu partnered to jointly develop Level 4 electric vehicles for the robotaxi market in China. One major prototype has been developed by Alphabet's Waymo which recently unveiled a Level 4 self-driving taxi service in Arizona, where they had been testing driverless cars without a driver behind the wheel for over 10 million miles. This development will be further driven by research from startups such as Navyaand Magna who are developing Level 4 taxis/shuttles for the mobility market.
While there are still regulations limiting Level 4 adoption, the regulatory scenario in the short to medium term is much more positive for Level 4 autonomy vehicles when compared to Level 5 autonomy vehicles. Level 5 vehicles do not require human attention and these cars likely won’t even have steering wheels or acceleration/braking pedals. They will not be limited in area, and will be able to go anywhere and focus on replacing the complete human tasks in vehicles. These Level 5 autonomous cars are undergoing testing in several regions world, but no concept or consumer vehicles have been launched so far. The demand from the commercial sector from mobility applications to trucking will significantly propel research into his market although consumer demand will still remain abrasive. The current technological limitations surrounding detection sensors will also limit Level 5 autonomy although advanced research from automakers and companies in the market will spur this technological innovation. The sensors create a large influx of data; Level 5 autonomous cars need to understand and perceive this data as objects in the environment. As even a small amount of latency can create an unsafe situation, this data needs to be assessed in real time. The only feasible way to process the volume of raw data from sensors is with machine learning and artificial intelligence. Thus there is significant development of AI and sensors required for Level 5 autonomous vehicles to be capable of functioning. Thus although the current research gap has pushed back the autonomous vehicle development, Level 5 autonomy is only likely to be achieved in the long term.
Ever since the Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) has been introduced in the market, it has brought series of legal implications with it. ADAS is a technology that is capable of reducing traffic fatalities by 40% as per the study conducted by University of Twente, Netherlands. The technology was available to only premium vehicle segments before 2010. Governments across the different regions identified the advantages of the ADAS technology and how it affects the driver’s decision while driving. ADAS technology such as Lane Departure Warning System (LDWS), Blind Spot Detection (BSD) and Autonomous Emergency Braking Systems (AEBS) were hence tested in all conditions across different testing centers across the world.
North America and the European Union commissions have added Forward Collision Mitigation System (FCMS) and LDWS as a part of New Car Assessment Program (N.C.A.P) ratings. The shipments of these applications surged as to bag higher safety ratings and thereby high penetration in the market leading to more adaptation. The government regulations catalyze the credibility of technology among people. The Japanese government regulations in 2012 to make AEBS mandatory for heavy trucks boomed up the adaptation of the technology in the market. Following are the details of few of the ADAS applications that were or will be backed by the government legislation:
Global ADAS Legislations and Mandates
There hasn’t been any change in the concept of cars after the invention of the automobiles. The technology has enhanced subsequently since the first car was manufactured, but the rudiments of the invention are still the same. There have been regular improvements in automotive technology by integrating vehicle parts such as dashboard, steering and control pedals with the electrical components. Due to the high growth in the Logistics industry, truck traffic has substantially increased. Around 90% of the fatalities are caused by the driver’s mistake. In the upcoming future, the ADAS will act as a prominent human machine interface to avoid potentially dangerous traffic situations. Multi-sensor data fusion and information combination is briskly developing in the automotive industry that requires interdisciplinary learning in control hypothesis, sign preparing, manmade brainpower, likelihood and measurements, and so on. The intricacy of driving vehicles and vulnerability of the driving environment make driving an extremely risky activity. As indicated by a study conducted in the major countries of the European regions, more than 1.4 million vehicle collisions in 2019 occurred with more than 50,000 fatalities. This augments the focus towards the developing interest for auto security frameworks, which go for a critical commitment to general road safety. Therefore, as of late, there have been a number of examination exercises concentrating on the Driver Assistance System (DAS) improvement with a specific end goal to lessen the driver's workload and forestall mishap driving and few types of ADAS applications have thus been approved to help reduce the threat and support the driver. Recent innovations in the field of automotive electronics focus on improving active safety aspects of the automobile rather than passive safety frameworks. An Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) should support the driver in his/her errand to drive the vehicle giving appropriate data or cautioning the driver in imminent hazardous circumstance. The system should be furnished with different sorts of sensors to monitor surroundings of the vehicle. This will revolutionize the automotive industry especially with the onset of autonomous vehicles.
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